But even before that, different approaches to analysis and comparison of texts in hermeneutic contexts e. Categorization, organization phase and classification of the corpus on a set of significant number of units of record the codes ; it is a way of sorting based on criteria, the entire encoded material; 4. One of the key features of qualitative content analysis in contrast to classical quantitative content analysis is that the context is also central to the interpretation and analysis of the material. Inter-subjective verifiability is a case in point here. Synthese, 1 , In the following two sections we present a set of subsidies for a critique of CA, including the discussion of adductive reasoning and the relation among phenomenon, theory and data. As was already shown in Section 3.
The object of qualitative content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication, i. In the first section, a brief history of this method and of its main modalities and techniques are presented. This section will give a short overview of the main steps in undertaking case studies, drawing mainly from YIN a ‘s seminal work on case study research. One of the strengths of qualitative content analysis is the way it tries to synthesize openness—as claimed by the qualitative research paradigm—and theory-guided investigation—usually demanded by the hypothetical-deductive paradigm. At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it. In such a setting, a case study would be an explanatory one ibid. Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches Vol.
The case study crisis: In fact, the research strategy that is regularly pursued in content analysis is governed by these traditional criteria of validity and reliability, where the latter is a precondition for the former but not vice versa TITSCHER et al.
On the first and more obvious level, data is triangulated by integrating different material and evidence see Section 5. Interestingly, the deduction starts from the rule to the datum to extract the conclusion inferencewhile in the case of the induction, it starts from the datum cae order to complete something, and then make the leap to the rule theory.
The use of the qualitative content analysis in psychology: a critical review
According to HARTLEYdata collection and analysis are “developed together in an iterative process,” which can be a strength as it allows for theory development which is grounded in empirical evidence p. The first was influenced by the Chicago School thinkers who defined the content analysis as a research technique for the purpose of objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.
However, he fails to go into greater detail concerning this matter. One main characteristic analysjs this dispute seems to be the dichotomous way in which qualitative and quantitative research methods were presented as well as the resulting strict contraposition of the two cf. Qualitative Social Research, 7 1.
Kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research
Stability refers to whether the same results are obtained in a sudy application of the analytical tool to the same text and reproducibility is the extent to which the analysis achieves the same results under different circumstances, for instance with different coders. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them” p.
The procedures of summary, explication and structuring step-by-step reduce complexity and filter out the main points of analysis in an iterative process. Scientific models in philosophy of science. DenzinYvonna S.
In fact, qualitative content qulaitative claims studu synthesize two contradictory methodo logical principles: In fact, despite this openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a step-by-step process see Section 4.
Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Synthese, 1 Qualitative Research, 8 1- Quantitative and qualitative research: He contends that any of these strategies can be used in practicing five specific techniques for analyzing case studies: Hence, qualitative content analysis might be an appropriate analysis and interpretation method for case study research.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research
For this the text is paraphrased, generalized or abstracted and reduced. The content analysis of qualitative research data: The creation of knowledge through case study research. Qualitatlve validity relates, for instance, to previous success with similar constructs, established models and theories, and representative interpretations.
Pre-analysis, which consists of material selection corpus to be analyzed articles, transcribed interviews, qualittaive. The discipline and practice of 2006.ths research. As a result, inference in content analysis confines itself only to specific features of external and internal validity. According to YIN a there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies: Market Research – A basic role for a marketing researcher is that of intermediary qqualitative the.
In the next section we deepen the discussion of inference, including, beyond the induction and the deduction, the adductive reasoning.
Social Science Information, 53 2 This section will give a short overview of the main steps in undertaking case studies, drawing mainly from YIN a ‘s seminal work on case study research. Inter-subjective verifiability is a case in point here. Besides, we also saw that case study research has a major function in generating hypotheses and build theory.
As a result, in the case of a prior hypothesis testing, there is the dependence of the interpretation of a theoretical and conceptual system as its basis.